arkaimcity

arkaimcity:

The Biological Concept of Race

A survey, taken in 1985 (Lieberman et al. 1992), asked 1,200 American scientists how many disagree with the following proposition: "There are biological races in the species Homo sapiens:"

Responses to surveys of faculty at Ph.D-granting departments indicate that 67% of biologists accept the concept of biological races in the species Homo sapiens, while only 50% of physical anthropologists do so. Content analysis of college textbooks indicates a significant degree of change over time (1936–1984) in physical anthropology but a lesser degree in biology.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tea.3660290308/abstract

Although, according to the 2000 edition of a popular physical anthropology textbook, forensic anthropologists are overwhelmingly in support of the idea of the basic biological reality of human races. Forensic physical anthropologist and professor George W. Gill said:

"The idea that race is only skin deep is simply not true, as any experienced forensic anthropologist will affirm. The complete denial of the opposing evidence seems to stem largely from socio-political motivation and not science at all.

Not one introductory textbook of physical anthropology even presents that perspective as a possibility. In a case as flagrant as this, we are not dealing with science but rather with blatant, politically motivated censorship.”
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/does-race-exist.html

Causations for the decline in the acceptance of race?

  • World War II

Race After WWII:
http://anthropology.ua.edu/bindon/ant275/presentations/POST_WWII.PDF#search=%22stanley%20marion%20garn%22

Prior to, and especially after, the Second World War, a number of anthropologists questioned the scientific value of the concept, initiating a debate over ‘the existence of human races’. Research suggests that the debate has still not been resolved, as significant differences exist among anthropologists from different countries and regions of the world. In some places the concept of race seems to be falling out of favour (e.g., the USA and Western Europe), while in others it is generally accepted (e.g., China and Eastern Europe).
The Status of the Race Concept in Contemporary Biological Anthropology: A Review

  • Scientists have been discouraged from using the term "race:"

The editors of Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine asked authors to "not use race and ethnicity in research published in the ARCHIVES:"
http://web.archive.org/web/20081011231227/http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/155/2/119

Nature Genetics now ask authors to “explain why they make use of particular ethnic groups or populations, and how classification was achieved:”
http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/editorials/24902448/racial-profiling-medical-research

  • The civil rights movements:

Liberman et al. (1992) examined 77 college textbooks in biology and 69 in physical anthropology published between 1932 and 1989. Physical anthropology texts argued that biological races exist until the 1970s, when they began to argue that races do not exist. In contrast, biology textbooks never underwent such a reversal but instead dropped their discussion of race altogether.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tea.3660290308/abstract

Morning (2008) looked at high school biology textbooks during the 1952-2002 period and initially found a similar pattern with only 35% directly discussing race in the 1983–92 period from initially 92% doing so:
http://as.nyu.edu/docs/IO/1043/2008_Reconstructing_Race_in_AJS.pdf

Although, Gissis (2008) examined several important American and British journals in genetics, epidemiology and medicine for their content during the 1946-2003 period. He wrote that:

"Based upon my findings I argue that the category of race only seemingly disappeared from scientific discourse after World War II and has had a fluctuating yet continuous use during the time span from 1946 to 2003, and has even become more pronounced from the early 1970s on.”
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19026975

Suggesting that after the post-WWII period discussion of the biological reality of race was restored, but remains a taboo topic post-WWII.

Race is genetic clustering:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19695787

Each point is an individual, and the axes are two principal components in the space of genetic variation. Colors correspond to individuals of different European ancestry.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v16/n12/full/ejhg2008210a.html

  • Swedes and Norwegians can be distinguished with 90 percent accuracy (Table 4)
  • The chance of mis-identifying a European as an African or E. Asian is exponentially small (Table 5)
archaeoblogs
archaeoblogs:

Europeans and South Asians share by descent SLC24A5 light skin alleleSource: http://bit.ly/188brNt

(image)
The age estimate for this allele is quite old but with a huge 95% confidence interval. Hopefully ancient DNA can illuminate the trajectory of the allele’s frequency through time and space.
Razib has more.PLoS Genet 9(11): e1003912. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003912
The Light Skin Allele of SLC24A5 in South Asians and Europeans Shares Identity by Descent

Chandana Basu Mallick et al.

Skin pigmentation is one of the most variable phenotypic traits in humans. A non-synonymous substitution (rs1426654) in the third exon of SLC24A5 accounts for lighter skin in Europeans but not in East Asians……….. Read MoreRead and find more great archaeology blogs at: Archaeology Blog Project

archaeoblogs:

Europeans and South Asians share by descent SLC24A5 light skin allele
Source: http://bit.ly/188brNt

(image) The age estimate for this allele is quite old but with a huge 95% confidence interval. Hopefully ancient DNA can illuminate the trajectory of the allele’s frequency through time and space. Razib has more.PLoS Genet 9(11): e1003912. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003912 The Light Skin Allele of SLC24A5 in South Asians and Europeans Shares Identity by Descent Chandana Basu Mallick et al. Skin pigmentation is one of the most variable phenotypic traits in humans. A non-synonymous substitution (rs1426654) in the third exon of SLC24A5 accounts for lighter skin in Europeans but not in East Asians……….. Read More


Read and find more great archaeology blogs at: Archaeology Blog Project

newsfrompoems

newsfrompoems:

Nature: Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans (subscription required)

nationalpost
nationalpost:

Anthropologists amazed after 24,000-year-old body of Siberian boy shows relation to Europeans, Native Americans
The genome of a young boy buried at Mal’ta near Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia some 24,000 years ago has turned out to hold two surprises for anthropologists.
The first is that the boy’s DNA matches that of Western Europeans, showing that during the last Ice Age people from Europe had reached farther east across Eurasia than previously supposed. Although none of the Mal’ta boy’s skin or hair survive, his genes suggest he would have had brown hair, brown eyes and freckled skin.
The second surprise is that his DNA also matches a large proportion — some 25 percent — of the DNA of living Native Americans. The first people to arrive in the Americas have long been assumed to have descended from Siberian populations related to East Asians. It now seems that they may be a mixture between the Western Europeans who had reached Siberia and an East Asian population. (Photo: Alexander Nemenov / AFP / Getty Images)

nationalpost:

Anthropologists amazed after 24,000-year-old body of Siberian boy shows relation to Europeans, Native Americans

The genome of a young boy buried at Mal’ta near Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia some 24,000 years ago has turned out to hold two surprises for anthropologists.

The first is that the boy’s DNA matches that of Western Europeans, showing that during the last Ice Age people from Europe had reached farther east across Eurasia than previously supposed. Although none of the Mal’ta boy’s skin or hair survive, his genes suggest he would have had brown hair, brown eyes and freckled skin.

The second surprise is that his DNA also matches a large proportion — some 25 percent — of the DNA of living Native Americans. The first people to arrive in the Americas have long been assumed to have descended from Siberian populations related to East Asians. It now seems that they may be a mixture between the Western Europeans who had reached Siberia and an East Asian population. (Photo: Alexander Nemenov / AFP / Getty Images)